Increase knowledge! 24 common metal materials and their characteristics


1, 45 - high quality carbon structural steel, which is the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel

Main Characteristics: The most commonly used medium carbon steel, quenched and tempered, with good overall mechanical properties, low hardenability, and easy to crack during water quenching. Small parts must be quenched and tempered, while large parts must be normalized. Application Example: It is mainly used for high strength moving parts such as turbine impellers and compressor pistons. Shafts, gears, racks, worms, etc. Pay attention to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.

2. Q235A (A3 steel) is the most commonly used carbon structural steel

Main Features: It has high ductility, toughness, welding performance, cold forming performance, a certain strength, and good cold bending performance. Application example: Widely used in parts and weldments with general requirements. Such as rods, connecting rods, pins, shafts, screws, nuts, lugs, brackets, machine bases, building structures, bridges, etc.

3, 40Cr—one of the most widely used steel grades, related to alloy structural steel

Main Features: After quenching and tempering, it has good overall mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength in oil cooling, and complex shape in water cooling. prone to cracking, cold bending ductility is medium, workability after tempering or quenching and tempering is good, but weldability is poor, cracks are easy to occur, it needs to be heated to 100-150°C before welding, and it is generally used in the state of quenching and tempering. Carbonitration and high frequency surface hardening can also be performed. Application example: After quenching and tempering, it is used to make parts with medium speed and medium load, such as machine tool gears, shafts, worms, splined shafts, sleeves, etc. After quenching and tempering and high-frequency surface hardening, it is used to make high hardness, durable grinding parts such as gears, shafts, main shafts, crankshafts, mandrels, bushings, pins, connecting rods, nuts, intake valves, etc. are used to make heavy, medium speed impact parts after quenching and medium temperature tempering. such as worms, main shafts, shafts, bushings, etc., after quenching and low temperature tempering, carbon nitriding is used to produce transmission parts with large dimensions and high low temperature toughness, such as shafts and gears.

4. HT150 - gray cast iron

Application examples: gearbox, frame, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley, bearing cap, etc.

5, 35 - common materials for various standard parts and fixtures

Main characteristics: Appropriate strength, good ductility, high cold ductility, acceptable weldability. When cold, it can be partially tilted and pulled out. Low hardenability, use after normalizing or quenching and tempering Application examples: suitable for making parts with small cross sections, parts that can withstand heavy loads: such as crankshafts, levers, connecting rods, brackets, etc., various standard parts, fasteners.

6.65Mn is a widely used spring steel

Application examples: A variety of flat and round springs, seat cushion springs, small size springs, spring rings, valve springs, clutch tabs, brake springs, cold-rolled helical springs, retaining rings, etc. can also be produced.


7, 0Cr18Ni9 is the most commonly used stainless steel (US 304, Japanese SUS304)

Characteristics and Applications: It is the most widely used stainless heat resistant steel, such as in food processing equipment, general chemical equipment and original energy industry equipment.

8. Cr12 is a widely used cold forming die steel (American D3 steel, Japanese SKD1 type)

Characteristics and applications: Cr12 steel is a widely used cold forming die steel, which belongs to high carbon and high chromium ledeburite steel. The steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance; because the carbon content of Cr12 steel reaches 2.3%, the toughness is low, it becomes brittle easily, and easily forms uneven eutectic carbides; With good wear resistance, it is mainly used for making cold forming dies, punches, blanking dies, cold heading dies, punches and cold extrusion dies, drill bushings and gauges, which are subjected to less impact load and require high wear resistance, wire drawing die, embossing die, thread rolling board, deep and cold drawing die for powder metallurgy, etc.

9. DC53 is a widely used cold working die steel imported from Japan

Characteristics and applications: High strength and impact die steel for cold work, steel grade Daido Special Steel Co., Ltd., Japan. After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting performance. Used for precision cold forming dies, drawing dies, wire rolling dies, cold blanking dies, punches andetc. 10. SM45 - ordinary carbon plastic die steel (Japanese steel grade S45C)

10, DCCr12MoV - wear resistant chromium steel

Made in China. The carbon content is lower than Cr12 steel, and Mo and V are added to improve the unevenness of carbides. MO can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, and V can reduce grain size and improve toughness. The steel has high hardenability, the cross section can be fully quenched less than 400mm, it can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300~400°C, has higher toughness than Cr12, small volume change during quenching, and high wear resistance , abrasiveness and good comprehensive mechanical properties, so a variety of molds with large cross-sections, complex shapes and greater impact load can be produced, such as ordinary drawing dies, punching dies, punching dies, blanking dies, trimming dies and rolling dies, drawing dies, cold extrusion dies, cold cutting shears, circular saws, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.

11, SKD11 - strong chromium steel

Manufactured by Hitachi Co., Ltd., Japan. Technically improves the structure of the casting in steel and refines the grains. Compared with Cr12mov, the strength and wear resistance are improved. The service life of the mold is increased.

12, D2 - high carbon high chromium cold worked steel

Made in the USA. It has high hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, small deformation during heat treatment. Suitable for making a variety of high-precision and long-lasting cold working dies, knives and measuring tools, such as drawing dies, cold extrusion dies, cold cutting knives, etc.

13, SKD11 (SLD) - high chromium steel with deformation-free toughness

Manufactured by Hitachi Co., Ltd., Japan. By increasing the content of MO and V in the steel, the casting structure of the steel is improved, the grains are refined, and the carbide morphology is improved. Therefore, the strength and toughness of this steel (bending strength, deflection, toughness, etc.) is higher than that of SKD1, D2, the wear resistance has also increased, and has a higher tempering resistance. Practice has shown that the service life of this steel shape is improved compared to Cr12mov. It is often used to make molds with high requirements, such as drawing die, impact grinding wheel die, etc.

14, DC53 - high strength high chromium steel

Manufactured by Daido Co., Ltd., Japan. The heat treatment hardness is higher than SKD11. After high temperature tempering (520-530), it can reach high hardness 62-63HRC. In terms of strength and wear resistancety , DC53 outperforms SKD11. Twice as strong as SKD11. DC53 Strength rarely cracks and cracks in cold work mold making. This greatly improves the service life. Residual stress is low. Residual stress decreases after high temperature. Because cracks and deformation after wire cutting are suppressed. SKD11. Used for precision stamping dies, cold forming dies, deep drawing dies, etc.

Increase knowledge! 24 common metal materials and their characteristics

15. CX-9 is a general purpose high speed steel with increased wear resistance and toughness

Manufactured by Hitachi, Japan. Used to make cold forging dies, strip cutters, drills, reamers, punches, etc.

16. ASP-23 — powder metallurgy of high-speed steel

Produced in Sweden. The distribution of carbides is extremely uniform, wear resistant, has high strength, is easy to machine and retains its size after heat treatment. It is used for dies, deep drawing dies, drilling dies, cutters and scissors, etc. Long service life of cutting tools.

17, P20 is usually the required size for plastic molds

Made in the USA. Can be subjected to electroerosive processing. Factory condition pre-hardened to HB270-300. Hardness when hardened - HRC52.

18, 718 - plastic molds with high demands

Made in Sweden. Specially for EDM. Pre-hardened HB290-330 in factory condition. Hardness after hardening HRC52

19. Nak80—high mirror finish, high precision plastic mold

Manufactured by Daido Co., Ltd., Japan. Pre-hardened HB370-400 in factory condition. Hardness after hardening HRC52

20. S136——Anti-corrosion and mirror polishing of the plastic mold

Made in Sweden. Pre-hardened HB<215 in factory condition. Hardness after hardening HRC52.

21, H13 are commonly used injection molding dies

For pressure casting of aluminium, zinc, magnesium and other alloys.

22. SKD61 - Advanced Injection Molding System

Manufactured by Hitachi Co., Ltd., Japan, thanks to the electric ballast remelting technology, the service life is greatly increased compared to H13.

23, 8407 - advanced injection mold

Made in Sweden, hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies.

24, FDAC - Added sulfur to increase brittleness.

Factory pre-hardened hardness is 338-42HRC, which allows direct engraving without quenching or tempering. It is used for small batch molds, simple molds, various resin products, sliding parts and mold parts with short delivery time. Zipper mold, glasses frame mold.