The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!


The ten most durable materials known to man

1. Graphene

The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!

Introduction: Graphene is a honeycomb 2D flat film formed by sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms. It is a single layer sheet structure separated from graphite and also the thinnest new material known so far. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are 125 GPa and 1.1 TPa, respectively, which is 100 times higher than ordinary steel. The graphene packing bag can bear the weight of about 2 tons and is the strongest material currently known.

Development trend: After receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010, the number of patent applications for graphene around the world began to increase dramatically.

Main research companies: Graphene Technologies, Graphene Industries, XG Sciences, Dafu Technology, Tunghsu Optoelectronics, China Baoan, ST Carbon, Baotailong, Fangda Carbon, etc.

2. Carbon nanotubes

The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!

Introduction: Carbon nanotubes are one-dimensional quantum materials in which carbon atoms arranged in the form of hexagons form from several to tens of layers of coaxial tubes. It can be seen as rolled sheets of graphene. The number of layers of graphene sheets can be divided into: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Carbon nanotubes have good mechanical properties: tensile strength reaches 50-200 GPa, which is 100 times greater than that of steel, but the density is only 1/6 of the density of steel, which is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of ordinary graphite fibers; the modulus of elasticity can reach 1 TPa. It is equivalent to the modulus of elasticity of diamond and is about 5 times that of steel.

Development trend: Since the discovery in the 1990s, carbon nanotube industries have flourished and are widely used in the production of composite materials and films, transparent conductors, thermal interfaces, bulletproof vests, wind turbine blades, electrodes and catalyst carriers. for functional devices, etc.

Main research companies: Bayer Materials Science AG, Toray Industries Inc., Unidym Inc., Shenzhen Nanoport Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Yiwan Technology Co., Ltd., Shandong Dazhan Carbon Nanotube Co., Ltd., Shenzhen. Beiterui New Energy Materials Co., Ltd. etc.

3. Metal glass

The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!

Introduction: Metallic glass, also known as amorphous metal, is usually an alloy with an amorphous structure and a vitreous structure. This dual structure determines that it has many unattainable properties of crystalline metals and glasses, such as good electrical conductivity, high strength, high elasticity, more wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant. Metallic glass is stronger than steel and harder than high-hardness tool steel.

Development trend: Super strong, elastic and magnetic properties, and relatively large hard metal glass, which does not crystallize at high temperatures, mainly in the aerospace field and military weapons.

Main research companies and institutions: Glassimetal Technology Inc., Institute of Metallic Materials, Tohoku University, California Institute of Technology, etc.

4. UHMWPE Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber

The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!

Introduction: Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber is a fiber derived from polyethylene with a relative molecular weight of 1 to 5 million. It is currently the highest strength and lightest specific gravity fiber in the world. Its strength is higher than steel wire, 15 times higher, but very light, up to 40% lighter than aramid and other materials.

Trends: from ropes, moorings and nets to life protection products, high-quality textiles, composites, laminates - the range of applications is extremely wide. In the next 5 and 10 years, the annual demand for UHMWPE in the world will be 60,000 tons and 100,000 tons, respectively.

Main research companies: Dutch DSM, American Honeywell, Japan Mitsui Chemicals, Shanghai Sirui Polymer Technology Co., Ltd., Hunan Zhongtai Special Equipment Co., Ltd., Ningbo Dacheng New Materials Co., Ltd. etc. .

5. Boron nitride nanotubes

The ten most durable materials known to mankind, the most expensive materials and the most heat-resistant materials!

Introduction. Boron nitride, like carbon, forms single-layer sheets that can be rolled into nanotubes. Boron nitride nanotubes are as strong as carbon nanotubes on their own, but their real advantage lies in their ability to adhere strongly to polymeric materials when combined with them. The strength of boron nitride nanotube materials is higher than carbon nanotubes, about 30% higher than PMMA interface, and about 20% higher than epoxy resin.

Development trend: Boron nitride nanotubes have optical properties, excellent mechanical and thermal properties, withstand high temperatures, absorb neutron radiation and become mechanical or thermal reinforcing elements for polymers, ceramics and metal composites, effective additives. Additional uses for boron nitride nanotubes include protective shields, electrical insulators, and sensors.

Main research companies: American BNNT LLC., Wuhan Chemical New Materials Industrial Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd. etc.

6. Lonsdaleite

Introduction. The Lonsdale Stone was discovered by the American geologist Lonsdale in a crater and identified as a hexagonal meteorite diamond. Like diamonds, it is made up of carbon atoms, but their carbon atoms are shaped differently. After simulation experiments, it was found that the compression strength of Lonsdale stone is 58% higher than that of diamonds.

7. Diamond

Introduction: Diamond is the hardest substance among many naturally occurring substances found on Earth. It is an allotrope of carbon. The hardness of diamond is the tenth degree of the highest hardness on the Mohs scale, and the microhardness is 10000 kg/mm2, which is 1000 times higher than that of quartz and 150 times higher than that of corundum.

Development trend: diamonds are widely used in industry, mainly in diamond tools, drawing die diamonds and diamond drill bits. Over the past ten years, Chinese diamond tool enterprises have developed rapidly, and the annual sales revenue growth rate is as high as 15%.

Main research companies: Japan Fuji Hua, Tyrolit, Saint Gobain, Sandvik, Japan Quyou, Yellow River Tornado, Yu Diamond, Sifangda, etc.

8. Airgel

Introduction. Airgel is a solid form of material, the smallest solid in the world. Density 3 kg/m3. Airgel looks "weak" but is actually very strong and durable. It can withstand pressure thousands of times its own mass and will not melt until the temperature reaches 1200 degrees Celsius.

Development trend: Airgel exhibits many specific properties in the field of heat engineering, optics, electricity, mechanics and acoustics and can be used as heat-insulating materials, targets for ITS and X-ray lasers, catalysts, adsorbents and various electronic devices. Etcwith excellent performance materials.

Main research companies and institutions: BASF, University of Würzburg, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Montpellier Materials Research Center, Nano Technology Co., Ltd. Lisheng High-tech Co., Ltd., Hongda Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.

9. Silicon carbide

Introduction: Silicon carbide is a natural mineral moissanite in nature, or it is smelted from quartz sand, petroleum coke (or coal coke), wood chips and other raw materials in a high temperature resistance furnace. Silicon carbide is very hard, with a Mohs hardness of 9.5, second only to the hardest diamond in the world, it has excellent thermal conductivity and is a semiconductor resistant to oxidation at high temperatures.

Development trend: As a typical representative of third-generation semiconductor materials, silicon carbide is preferred by semiconductor manufacturers. Power electronic devices made of silicon carbide single crystal substrates and epitaxial materials can work in high-voltage, high-frequency environments, outstanding performance advantages and wide industrial perspectives.

Main research companies and institutions: Silicon Carbide Products Inc., Cree Corporation of United States, Hebei Tongguang Crystal Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences Semiconductor Institute, Xiamen Xinguang Runze Technology Co., Ltd., etc. .

10. Darwin's Dark Spider

Intro: According to reports, scientists have discovered a new species of Darwin's spider in Madagascar that can weave the largest and strongest web in the world. The strongest biological material, 10 times stronger than Kevlar fiber of the same size.

The ten most expensive materials in the world

1. Introduction to Antimatter: Antimatter in particle physics consists of antiparticles, which are any particles with the same mass but opposite charges. Antimatter and matter are opposites, just as the combination of a particle and an antiparticle causes them to annihilate and release high-energy photons or gamma rays. To produce 1 gram of antimatter would require 2,500 trillion kilowatt-hours of energy and cost over $1 trillion. It's not hard to imagine how rare artificial antimatter is.

Usage: Antimatter is an ideal power source for spacecraft. According to calculations, 10 milligrams of antiprotons the size of a grain of salt can generate propulsion energy equivalent to 200 tons of chemical fuel.

2. Endohedral fullerenes 100 million pounds per gram Introduction: Endohedral fullerenes were first discovered in 1985. They are spherical carbon nanostructures composed of 60 atoms forming a compact fullerene Cage containing non-metallic elements or simple molecules such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and gelsth. It is expensive due to the extremely complex process of production, isolation, purification and preservation.

Usage: Scientists are currently exploring the possibility of using embedded fullerenes in atomic clocks, which can be applied in vehicle positioning systems and greatly improve the accuracy of GPS positioning.

Main research companies and institutions: Oxford University Carbon Materials Design Company, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University, etc.

3. California: $27 million per gram

Introduction: California is a radioactive metallic element belonging to the actinides and is the sixth artificially synthesized transuranium element of the highest quality among the elements that can be obtained by nature.

Usage: The californium-252 isotope can be used for neutron teletherapy for the treatment of cancer patients. Since only a small radiation reaction can be obtained locally, the therapeutic effect is better than that of widely used radiation therapy.

4. Tritium US$30,000/gram Introduction: Tritium (tritium), also known as tritium, is one of the isotopes of hydrogen. Its nucleus is composed of a proton and two neutrons and is a radioactive beta decay. Tritium is rare in nature and is usually produced by nuclear reactions, so it is expensive.

Application. Tritium and its labeled compounds play an important role in military, industrial, hydrological, geological and various scientific research.

5. Taaffeite 2,000 ~ 150,000 USD / gram Introduction: Taaffeite (taaffeite) is one of the rare gemstones in the world, named after its discoverer Richard Taaffe (1898-1967), who discovered it in 1945. The first specimens were found in jewelry store in Dublin, Ireland, in October 2011, and most of the gemstones were mistaken for spinels prior to the discovery of daphite.

Uses: Because it is only known in a few known specimens, it is very rare and currently only used as a gemstone.

6. Bixbite Red Beryl US$9,000~137,500/gram Introduction: Red beryl is a rare and precious gemstone that was discovered in the United States in 1974. The color is dark red, light red and orange red, sometimes almost ruby ​​red or purple gemstone beryl, the color is caused by manganese and traces of lithium, and pleochroism is similar to ruby.

Usage: Mainly used as a gem.

7. Plutonium (99.95% Pu-242) $1.5 million per gram

Introduction: Plutonium is a radioactive element and an important raw material for nuclear energy.

Use: Can be used as a fission agent for nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons. The atomic bomb dropped on the city of Nagasaki used plutonium to make the core. Heis also a source of heat for a radioisotope thermoelectric engine.

8. Gold Gold US$37.03/gram Introduction: Gold (gold) is the elemental form of the chemical element gold (Au), and it is a soft, golden yellow, corrosion resistant precious metal. Now in the world about 2600 tons of gold are mined annually.

Purpose: Gold is not only a special currency for reserves and investments, but also an important material for jewelry, electronics, modern communications, aerospace and other industries.

9. Platinum $31.78/gram

Introduction: Platinum is a naturally occurring white precious metal that is malleable and can be drawn into very thin platinum wire and rolled into extremely thin platinum foil. Chemical properties are extremely stable, insoluble in solutions of strong acids and strong alkalis, do not oxidize in air. Platinum is thirty times rarer than gold and is only mined in very few places around the world.

Use: in the jewelry industry, it is mainly used as jewelry and handicrafts. In the chemical industry, it is used to make advanced chemical vessels, platinum crucibles, electrodes, and catalysts to speed up chemical reactions. Platinum-iridium alloy is the material from which fountain pen nibs are made. Especially in the automotive industry, platinum plays an indispensable role in the purification of exhaust gases, and its consumption accounts for almost half of the consumption of the platinum industry.

10. Rhodium Rhodium $24.73/gram

Introduction: Rhodium, the symbol for the element Rh, the Greek word rhodon meaning "rose", is a highly reflective, silvery-white hard metal. Rhodium is found in platinum ores and obtained by refining, is chemically stable and resistant to most common acids (including aqua regia) at moderate temperatures.

Application: Rhodium can be used to make hydrogenation catalysts, thermocouples, platinum-rhodium alloys, etc.

(Note: price deadlines for the above substances: antimatter: September 2014, embedded fullerene: December 2015, California: 1950, tritium: 2003, taaffeite: October 2016, red beryl: May 2016, Plutonium: 2008, Gold: January 1, 2017; Platinum: January 1, 2017; Rhodium: January 1, 2017)

The world's top ten materials with the highest melting point

1. Tantalum Hafnium Carbide Ta4HfC5 (3990°C) Alloy Introduction: Tantalum hafnium carbide alloy actually refers to tantalum hafnium carbide pentacarbide, which is the substance with the highest melting point among known compounds. It can be considered that it consists of two binary compounds: tantalum carbide (melting point 3983°C) and hafnium carbide (melting point 3928°C).

Application: Appliedas heat-resistant high-strength materials for rockets and jet engines, parts of control and adjustment equipment.

2. Graphite (3652℃)

Introduction: Graphite is an allotropic form of elemental carbon. The periphery of each carbon atom is bonded to three other carbons (arranged in a honeycomb pattern of many hexagons) to form a covalent bond. covalent molecule. Due to the special structure, it has high temperature resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, lubricity, chemical stability, plasticity, etc.

Application: traditionally used as refractory materials, conductive materials, wear-resistant lubricants, casting materials, foundry, molding and high-temperature metallurgy, and recently used as flexible graphite sealing materials, car batteries, new composite materials, etc. .d.

Main research companies: Northern Graphite, Alabama Graphite Corp., Superior Graphite, Jilin Carbon Co., Ltd., Shanxi Jinneng Group Co., Ltd., Fangda Carbon, etc.

3. Diamond (3550℃)

Introduction: Diamond is an atomic crystal, and graphite is a mixed crystal. The melting point of graphite crystal is higher than that of diamond. The covalent bond length is 1.55×10-10m. It is also a covalent bond, the shorter the bond length, the greater the bond energy, the stronger the bond, the more difficult it is to break, and more energy must be provided, so the melting point must be higher.

Application: cutting tools in crafts and industry, such as wire drawing dies, lathe knives, engraving knives, hardness indenters, geological and oil drilling bits, grinding wheel knives, glass knives, diamond nibs, trimmer knives and abrasives.

Main research companies: British Elementsix, American Diamond Innovation, Korean IL Jin, KGS Diamond Group, Zhengzhou Sino-Crystal Diamond Co., Ltd. etc.

4. Tungsten Tungsten (3400℃)

Introduction: Tungsten is a steel gray or silvery white metal with high hardness and high melting point, which does not corrode in air at room temperature. As the refractory metal with the highest melting point (typically the metal with a melting point above 1650°C), it has good heat resistance.

Application: Mainly used in the production of filaments and high-speed cutting of alloy steel, super hard shapes, and also used in optical and chemical instruments.

5. Zirconium diboride ZrB2 (3245°C)

Introduction: Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure (6.09g/cm3) and good heat resistance.

Application: can be used in high temperatureuranium aerospace applications (for example, in supersonic flights or in rocket engines).

6. Titanium diboride TiB2 (3225°C)

Introduction. Titanium diboride (TiB2) is gray or grey-black in color and has a hexagonal (AlB2) crystal structure. It has high hardness similar to ceramics, excellent thermal conductivity, oxidation resistance and mechanical erosion resistance.

Use: TiB2 is an acceptable electrical conductor and can be used as a cathode material in aluminum smelting.

7. Rhenium Rhenium (3180°C)

Introduction: Rhenium is a metallic element, one of the metals with a high melting point, similar in appearance to platinum, soluble in dilute nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide solution, insoluble in hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. It can be oxidized to the very stable rhenium heptoxide Re2O7, which is a special property of rhenium.

Application: it can be used to make electrical filaments, shells of artificial satellites and rockets, protective plates of nuclear reactors, etc.

8. Titanium carbide TiC (3100°C)

Introduction. Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard (9–9.5 on the Mohs scale) refractory ceramic material similar to tungsten carbide. It is an iron-gray crystal with a metallic luster, belonging to the face-centered cubic crystal structure of sodium chloride. It has a high melting point, boiling point, and hardness, as well as good thermal and electrical conductivity, and even exhibits superconductivity at extremely low temperatures.

Application: Widely used in the production of cermets, heat-resistant alloys, hard alloys, wear-resistant materials, high-temperature radiation materials and other high-temperature vacuum devices.

9. Osmium (3045°C)

Introduction: Osmium, a Group VIII element in the sixth period of the Periodic Table of the Elements and a member of the platinum group metals, belongs to the heavy metals of the platinum group and is the metal with the highest density known so far. Metallic osmium is very stable in air, while powdered osmium oxidizes easily.

Uses: Osmium can be used to make ultra-hard alloys, alloys of osmium and rhodium, ruthenium, iridium or platinum, and is also often used as bearings in record players, fountain pen tips, watches and instruments.

10. Silicon carbide SiC (2820°C)

Introduction. Silicon carbide (SiC) is smelted at high temperature in a resistance furnace from raw materials such as quartz sand, petroleum coke (or coal coke), wood chips (salt is required to produce green silicon carbide).

Application. Silicon carbide particles can be bonded together by sintering to form a very hard ceramic which is widely used in high strength applications such as automotiveknockout brakes, car clutches, and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests.