As a non-standard designer, I often get confused in the selection and application of some non-metallic materials, when can be interchanged, when only a certain material can be used, you need to understand it yourself, for example, to check the information, go to the official website of some professional manufacturers to understand etc. Below, I have summarized some commonly used non-metal materials., in order to introduce everyone, deepen some images, to help beginners, please point out the shortcomings.
1. Red (black) Bakelite - used to make brackets and electrical appliances such as light switches, headphones, phone cases, and tool cases.
Electrical properties: Bakelite is non-hygroscopic, non-conductive, resistant to high temperatures and has high strength. It is mainly used in electrical appliances. It is called "bakelite" because it has good insulation and good ductility, like wood. .
Bakelite board has the advantages of good mechanical strength, no static electricity, intermediate electrical insulation, etc. The performance of bakelite board is also very good, with a specific gravity of 1.45, low deformation, good machinability, good electrical performance, and operating temperature range from -40 to 100°C.
Mechanical properties: Phenolic - a hard and brittle thermosetting phenol (Bakelite): surface is hard, brittle and brittle, with a wooden sound when tapped, mostly opaque dark color (brown or black); Deformation, does not soften when heated. water.
Production method: Phenolic resin can be obtained by the polycondensation reaction of phenolic and aldehyde compounds under the action of an acid or basic catalyst. Completely mix the phenolic resin with sawdust powder, talc (filler), urotropine (hardener), stearic acid (lubricant), pigment, etc., heat and knead in a mixer until pink Bakelite is obtained.
Thermoset phenolic products are obtained by heating and pressing Bakelite powder into a mold
2. Epoxy - made from coatings, composite materials, casting materials, adhesives, molding materials and injection molding materials
Characteristics: It has high mechanical and dielectric properties, high temperature resistance and moisture resistance. Epoxy resin boards are also widely used, and are commonly used as insulating materials in some electrical and electrical applications.
There are four types of epoxy boards: 3240, FR-4, G10 and G11. To obtain different types of epoxy boards, you can use different grades of raw materials and different additives.
3. Transparent (blue) acrylic (plexiglass) --- doors, windows, covers
4.peek: high hardness, high strength, low density
5.UNILATE: antistatic material.
Electricity generated by friction can flow quickly and be lost on conductive objects, but on non-conductive insulators such as chemical fibers, woolen fabrics and other objects, it will stand still and generate static electricity that will build up when a certain voltage is reached , there is a discharge with noise and sparks.
6. Teflon - place the product without damaging it.
7. Silica gel - high temperature resistance
a).ABS (plastic) are commonly used materials for prototypes
b)..POM white (black) steel plug - product place, gear
POM: Polyoxymethylene, known as "Super Steel" or "Sy Steel", is a milky white opaque crystalline linear polymer. Good overall performance, fatigue resistance is the best among thermoplastics and excellent mechanical properties at room temperature.
Abrasion resistance, lubricity, good oil and peroxide resistance. Very poor acid resistance, strong alkali resistance and moonlight ultraviolet radiation, machining, especially suitable for making precision parts, its tensile strength, bending strength,
Fatigue resistance, wear resistance and electrical properties are very good, and it can be used for a long time at -40 to 100 degrees.
c).PU: Polyurethane --- friction resistance (pressure roller)
Characteristics: wear resistance, very little elasticity, high temperature instability, slightly soft, high tear strength, good cushioning characteristics, some soles are made of this material.
d). Silicone --- friction-resistant, low-elasticity (peritoneal framework)
e). Rubber --- friction resistance (with more elasticity)
f). Youli Glue (Elastic Adhesive)---Friction Resistant, High Elasticity (Ink Transfer Pencil)
9. Commonly used plastic pipes
a) Polyurethane tube: bright appearance; elastic material (good elasticity); transparent: has high transparency, and the flow state of the medium can be clearly seen; has a small bending radius and is easier to install (PU tube has extremely good high pressure resistance, vibration resistance, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, weather resistance, bending resistance, light weight; PU pipe is easy to use and flexible, easy to organize the pipeline, high-precision dimensional control of inner and outer diameter; PU pipe is flexible, durable and flexible, easy to use, excellent temperature resistance and heat insulation, and excellent arbitrary bending performance)
b) Nylon tube: also called PA tube, compared with PU tube: good chemical resistance, but relatively hard and wear resistant, PA6 PA11 PA12 is more commonly used in nylon tube; (nylon 6 is not strong enough, nylon 12 has better performance)
c) Polyethylene tube: easy to break and not wear resistant; nylon tube and PE tube are the same size, the compressive strength and heat resistance of nylon tube is much higher than that of PE tube, so nylon tube can be used. for transporting pressurized liquids polyethylene pipeswould only be able to transport non-pressure (almost non-pressure) liquid
d) PVC (pipes, joints, valves) (tap water is usually PVC or PE pipes, places with high requirements such as oil pipelines use polyurethane or nylon)
e) Silicone tube: very soft, good heat resistance
f) Performance comparison of several tubes: good and bad: silicone tube - polyurethane tube - nylon tube - PVC tube
10. Asbestos heat-insulating board
11. Molded insulation board (fiberglass) --- thermal insulation
12. Nylon - gear (reduces noise)
The main types of nylon are PA6 and PA66. Compared to PA6, PA66 is more widely used in the automotive industry, instrument cases and other products that require impact resistance and high strength.
Characteristics: excellent wear resistance, self-lubrication, high mechanical strength. However, it has high water absorption and therefore poor dimensional stability. PA66 can also maintain high strength and stiffness at higher temperatures.
PA66 application: chain plate and sprocket of SC conveyor line.
13. Polyethylene PE:
a). Odorless, non-toxic, feels like wax;
b). It has excellent low temperature resistance (the lowest operating temperature can reach -70～-100℃);
c).Good chemical stability, resistant to most acids and bases (not resistant to oxidizing acids), insoluble in common solvents at room temperature, low water absorption
d) Excellent electrical insulating properties: In terms of electrical properties: polyethylene is clearly better than PVC.
e) Compared to PVC: The maximum operating temperature of conductors with PVC and PE insulation is 70 degrees. The price of PVC is cheaper than that of PE, but the disadvantage is that it does not age well. PE insulation is thinner than PVC at the same level, but has excellent electrical insulation and water resistance.
14. Composite materials reinforced with carbon fiber
Features: light weight: 1/5 the weight of steel; high strength: 5 times more than steel; excellent heat resistance: withstands high temperatures above 2000 °C;
Low coefficient of thermal expansion: small deformation, excellent corrosion resistance and radiation performance;
Application: aerospace materials: because every 1kg of aerospace vehicle weight reduction can reduce the launch vehicle by 500kg, F1 racing car body and the best sports car.
15. Tempered glass - viewing window
16.pp———for injection molding products
Characteristics: chemical resistance, heat resistance, electrical insulation, high strength mechanical properties and good high wear resistant processing properties, etc.
A. Raw tape, sealant (corrosion resistance), glass adhesive (waterproof), PVC adhesive (tack);
B. Fluoroelastomer, PEEK, PVDF, EPDM, OVA rubber. Exception: Teflon tape (high temperature resistance), neck clamp, knee clamp (quick clamp), tension buckle (quick clamp)
C: Trident Ribbon (Plexiglas Inlaid), Backing Ribbon (Decoration), Fiber Cloth