How to distinguish colored glaze, glass and feeder


The color is the same as that of ice, and nothing separates from the dust. If you can't see Xiang Yang, you can meet the Jade Man. Wei Yingu's song about Liuli from the Tang Dynasty was used as the opening speech. Why am I using this poem about Liuli, because around me or in the live broadcast room, some friends often ask me what is Liuli? What is a material? Is glass just glass? Luli just material? What is the difference between the three? Some veteran players also often confuse materials with colored glaze, and some specialists even on TV programs frankly said that colored glaze and glass are just a verbal difference, but the essence is the same, which is too irresponsible. In order to help you better understand the differences between the three, we have specially compiled some relevant information, mixed with some personal opinions, for your reference only.

In ancient China, colored glaze was called by various names, such as Lu Li, Lu Lin, Yaoyu, Bi Liuli, Langxuan and so on. Su Shi's anthology has "What is Twenty-Four Bridges? Change these ten hectares of glass wind" and "Looking back at ancient Hezhou, it belongs to this glazed bell." the ancients did not distinguish between glass or glass, and the names are different. Strictly speaking, in ancient times there was only colored glaze, not glass, because the glass sintering temperature had to reach over 1200 degrees, which at that time simply was not reached. Glass in the modern sense came from the West during the Qing Dynasty. There is no such thing as material, because material craft only began to exist after the Ming Dynasty. From this point of view, products before the Ming and Qing dynasties in China should be collectively referred to as Liuli. I will talk about this later, so I will stop here. Let's talk about how to distinguish glass, colored glaze and materials.

1. Difference from transparency. In the category of modern archeology, what is transparent is called glass, what is opaque is called material, and what is translucent is called glass. This distinction has become popular only in modern times and is scientific to a certain extent. According to the analysis, the transparency of dishes is directly proportional to the content of silica in it, that is, the higher the content of silica, the higher the transparency, and vice versa, the lower the opacity. The highest silica content in modern glass can be as high as 99%, while the silica content in ancient vitrified glass can be as high as 92%. Such a distinction is intuitive and clear, but differs from the thinking of ordinary people and can only be used in archeology.

2. Distinguish from composition. The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, which has a molten structure. Although the main component of the color glaze is silicon dioxide, it has a crystalline structure, and the main component is a crystal containing lead oxide, so the color glaze is actuallyki closer to the crystal. This is due to the limitation of production technology in ancient times, and it is impossible to melt silica crystals into glass, so the colored glaze and crystals will have weathering patterns, but the weathering patterns will not appear on glass. Remember the glass marbles I played with as a child: no matter how uneven they are, there will be no “weather marks” left, and only a piece will fall off. The material is a thing between colored glaze and glass, where other pigments and ingredients are added to give more artistry, but the higher the silica content, the higher the transparency, and the lower the silica content, the transparency is poor. For example, although snuff bottles are called feeders, some have high clarity and some have low. This distinction is easy to understand, but it is too general.

3. Distinguish from process. The production process of glass is different for different types, but basically all kinds of raw materials need to be mixed and melted at a high temperature above 1200 degrees, and then the liquid is condensed into solids of various shapes through various molding methods. Unlike glass, colored glaze is fired at a low temperature. Raw materials from artificial crystals (containing 24% lead oxide) of various colors, as well as glass mat, are sintered at a temperature of 800-1200 degrees by casting with crystal dewaxing. This process can only be completed with dozens of manual operations, and a little carelessness can lead to failure or defects. Therefore, glazed products are more complex and more complex than glass products. The manufacture of feeding utensils in China began around the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. It is mainly known for imitating jade, agate, coral, etc. Modern nursing utensils generally refer to glass or glass as raw materials, which are made by inlay, whitewashing, calligraphy, and painting. Small objects such as snuff boxes, small pieces of animals, etc., but not beads. This distinction is more scientific, but also more abstract.

Finally, let me recap: before the Ming Dynasty, there was no glass or feeders in China. Glass is a relatively transparent silica product that is not weathered. Glass is a translucent crystalline structure that is easily weathered. The feeder is a glass or glazed product mixed with jade, agate, coral, and even traditional Chinese medicine, some of which are transparent and some are opaque.