The latest terminology of natural stone


Rock: natural aggregate consisting of rock-forming minerals, natural glass, colloidal or biological residues with a specific structure.

Stone stone: natural stone is used as the main raw material after processing and used for construction and decoration. Shelving or sidewalk materials, including natural stone and engineered stone.

Natural stone natural stone: natural stone of special size or shape after selection and processing. According to the material, it is mainly divided into marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, slate, etc., and according to the use, it is in mainly divided into natural building stone, natural decorative stone, etc. Note: In the processing of natural stone, cement or synthetic resin is used to seal the natural voids and cracks in the stone without changing the internal structure of the stone, and it is still classified as natural stone.

Marble Marble: Commercially refers to the type of stone represented by marble, including crystalline carbonate rocks and other softer-textured metamorphic rocks.

Granite: Commercially refers to a type of stone represented by granite, including igneous rocks and various silicate metamorphic rock materials.

Limestone: Commercially refers to a travertine-like stone formed primarily by the chemical precipitation of calcite, dolomite, or a mixture thereof.

Sandstone: From a commercial point of view, this refers to the mineral composition, mainly quartz and feldspar, containing slurry and other auxiliary minerals, mechanical sedimentary rocks.

Shale: commercially refers to a type of metamorphic rock that is easily broken into thin slices by a splitting surface that is easily formed along a current.

Natural building stone Natural building stone: natural stone used primarily for building functions and structures.

Natural decorative stone natural decorative stone: natural stone used primarily for decorative functions.

Natural facing stone: a surface finishing material made from natural stone, which is part of natural decorative stone.

Natural cladding tile natural cladding tile: Slab processed from natural stone, used as interior and exterior walls, floors, cylinders, countertops, etc. buildings, is part of the natural facing stone.

Gem type: classification of stone by color, pattern and other characteristics and origin.

Weathering airslake: Under atmospheric conditions, the physical properties and chemical composition of the stone change. Weathering factors are solar radiation, water, gases and living organisms.

Quarc: silicon dioxide crystal.

Feldspar Feldspar: A framework aluminosilicate mineral containing potassium, sodium and calcium.

Alkali feldspar alkali feldspar: A general term for feldspar that is rich in the alkali metal potassium and sodium.

Plagioclase: A general term for feldspars rich in sodium and calcium.

Mica Mica: a layered structure of aluminosilicate hydrate of iron, magnesium, potassium, etc., has a very complete scaly cleavage and can split into elastic plates along the cleavage.

Moscovite: Potassium-containing mica.

Biotite: A mica containing iron and magnesium.

Amphibole: a silicate mineral with a chain structure containing magnesium, iron, calcium, sodium and aluminum containing argon oxide (OH-).

Pyroxene: fast, money, calcium, sodium, aluminum, lithium structure, silicate minerals.

Calcite: A mineral composed of calcium carbonate.

Dolomite: a mineral composed of calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Olivine: silicate mineral of magnesium and iron.

Serpentine: magnesium silicate hydrate.

Pyrite: An iron disulfide mineral.

limonite: a mixture of iron oxide hydrates as the main component.

Magnetite magnetite: ferric tetroxide mineral, magnetic.

Fancrocrystalline texture: The structure of mineral crystal grains in igneous rocks that can be seen with the naked eye.

Croptocrystalline Texture: Mineral crystal grains in rocks are extremely small and cannot be seen under a polarizing microscope, but have photoreactions that can be distinguished from a glassy texture.

Vitreous Texture: A rock structure that has no crystallized components and is composed entirely of natural glassy substances.

Even Grain Texture: A texture in which the underlying mineral grains in a rock are substantially uniform in size.

Porrophyry texture: A structure in which two types of mineral grains of completely different sizes are present in the rock (the large one is called a phenocryst, the small one is called a matrix, and the matrix is ​​cryptocrystalline or vitreous).

Oolitic texture: Oolitic texture: a structure consisting of spherical waves directed towards spherical grains, and its outer grains resemble fish eggs.

clastic texture: a structure with a mass fraction of clasts in the rock of more than 50%.

Biological structure biogenetic texture: Structure in which the mass fraction of biological bones in the rock exceeds 30%.

Massive structure: a homogeneous structure in which the minerals in the rocks are arranged in no particular order, no definite direction, and no particular pattern.

Striped structure: a structure in which bands of different structures and compositions in rocks are approximately parallel.

Gneiss structure: a structure in which a scaly or pillarChat minerals are arranged in rocks in a directed order.

Igneous rock: A rock formed by the condensation of magma underground or ejected from the surface, also known as igneous rock.

Sedimentary rock: rock formed by the consolidation of loose sediments deposited in layers.

Metamorphic rock: rock formed after the metamorphism of the original rock.

Peridotite: An ultramafic igneous rock composed primarily of olivine and pyroxene.

Gabbro gabbro: A basic igneous rock, mainly composed of basic plagioclase and clinopyroxene.

Diabase-diabase: A shallow mafic igneous rock composed primarily of pyroxene and basic plagioclase.

Basaltic basalt: An extrusive mafic igneous rock with a composition comparable to gabbro.

Diorite Diorite: A plutonic neutral igneous rock composed primarily of neutral plagioclase and hornblende.

Granite: Deep acidic smectite composed primarily of quartz, feldspar, cloud, and a small amount of other dark minerals.

Dolomite: A sedimentary rock composed primarily of dolomite.

limestone: sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcite.

Oolitic Limestone: Limestone with an oolitic structure.

bioclastic limestone: limestone composed of broken biological membranes cemented with calcium carbonate.

Bamboo leaf-shaped limestone: limestone composed of round and oval flat gravel plates arranged in parallel. The gravel has the shape of bamboo leaves in a vertical section.

Stromatolite limestone: A layered limestone, also known as stromatolite.

Marble: a metamorphic rock with a mass fraction of carbonate minerals (mainly calcite and dolomite) of more than 50%.

serpentine marble: Marble containing serpentine.

Gneiss-gneiss: contains more feldspar and quartz, coarse-grained (usually more than 1 mm), metamorphic rock with a pronounced gneiss structure, scaly or columnar. Minerals can be mica hornblende, pyroxene, etc.

Terminology for stone products

Rough Quarry Stone: Irregularly shaped stone taken directly from the mine.

rubble stone: Rubble stone obtained by processing wool, which is directly classified by the mine and has a certain specification that meets the processing requirements.

Square Stone: A stone with certain characteristics obtained from wool and used for masonry construction.

Dimension Stone: Blocks that conform to standard specs.

Agreed size stone: A block whose characteristics are agreed upon by both the supplier and the buyer.

Flag plate: plate,carved from blocks and raw.

Original gloss bat slab: A wool slab with a polished mirror effect.

Rough slab: A slab with a flat and rough surface.

Slab with an axe: A rough panel carved with an axe.

Hammered Slab: A rough panel that has been flower hammered.

Scorched slab: a rough panel that has been flamed.

Sliced ​​Slab: A rough, machine-sliced ​​panel.

Fine panel (matte panel) polished plate: a panel with a flat and smooth surface.

Mirror panel (polishing plate) polished plate: a plate with a smooth surface and a mirror finish.

building slab: natural stone slab used for architectural decoration.

Note 1. Generally, the thickness of granite and marble building boards is less than 50mm, the thickness of limestone building boards is less than 75mm, and the thickness of sandstone building boards is less than 150mm;</p >

Note 2. In general, wafers over 12mm thick are called thick wafers, wafers between 8 and 12mm thick are called thin wafers, and wafers less than 8mm thick are called ultra-thin wafers.

Regular slab: square or rectangular building slab.

Size board: A regular board of a given size.

Slab arc slabs: The same building slab with the same radius of curvature of the decorative surface contour line.

Irregular slab: Irregular slab: other forms of building panels than regular slabs and arched slabs.

Agreed size slab: A slab agreed upon by both the supplier and the purchaser.

Composite stone veneer: a decorative panel made of stone as a cladding material bonded to one or more other materials with structural adhesives.

Shaped Stone: A stone that has been given a specific, non-planar shape.

Curved Beam Stone: A decorative stone plank formed by extending a section with a specific geometric shape along a fixed path.

Solid Pillar Stone: A stone pillar with a round cross profile for building or decoration.

Cubic material: natural stone used for laying square floors, sidewalks or curbs.

Note. Thickness usually exceeds 50 mm.

Tombstone: A set of stelae made of natural stone and placed in front of or behind the base of the tomb, usually consisting of a tombstone and an outer gate, engraved with the appropriate words, designs, and shapes.

Stela: A natural stone stele with commemorative or marking properties.

Paving stones: mainly used for outdoor walking.

Gem property conditions

Decorative finish: the effect of the appearance reflected by the sum of the color, pattern and gloss of the decorativeoh stone.

Pattern drawing: An image depicting the composition, texture, and structure of an ornamental stone.

Glossiness: The degree to which a veneer surface reflects visible light.

Flatness: The flatness of the veneer.

Corner Angle: The angle between two adjacent ridges on the decorative surface of the veneer.

Density: mass of rock per unit volume.

Hardness hardness: the ability of a surface to resist being scratched, abraded, cut, or pressed against the surface by other substances.

Water absorption: the ratio of the mass of water absorbed by rock to the mass of dry rock.

Abrasion resistance: A measure of the performance of a facing stone against pedal wear.

Acid resistance: the ability of facing stone to resist acid corrosion.

Alkali resistance: the ability of a facing stone to resist alkaline corrosion.

compressive strength: the stress value at which the sample breaks when compressed once.

Bending Strength Flexural Strength: The amount of stress that a specimen can withstand when it is bent to failure.

Frost resistance: the resistance of rocks to damage from freezing and thawing.

Frost resistance coefficient: The ratio of the bending strength value after freeze-thaw cycles to the bending strength value when saturated with water, used to measure the frost resistance of an outdoor stone.

Slip resistance factor: The ratio of the tangential force to the vertical force when an object overcomes maximum static friction and simply produces a slide.

Fissure: A small fissure in the rock.

Joint: A naturally filled or bonded bend in a stone, such as a band or vein.

Colored stripe: A striped, streaked or streaked substance incompatible with the base color and pattern of the facing stone.

Nodule: Agglomerated inclusions in carbonate rocks such as cherts.

Sand pit: A natural pit with a diameter of 2 mm or less.

Perforation: A natural pit with a diameter greater than 2 mm.

Concave notch: obvious disk-shaped defects are visible on the surface during processing.

Curl warp: the deformation of the stone by bending and twisting.

Edge Imperfection: Damage to the edges and corners of the stone.

Stain: A foreign matter contaminating the plate formed by primary and secondary growth.

Digging: a deep depression is formed during processing.

Mining and processing conditions

Mining: The process of separating ore from an ore body.

quarry: a place where ore is mined.

Removal of overburden: the process of removing non-mineral material around an ore body prior to mining.

Sawing: the process of turning blocks into raw boards or blanks.

Cutting: The process of cutting a plate to a specific size.

Sanding rubbing: the process of surface treatment of wool beforeski on a flat and smooth surface.

Polishing: The process of treating the surface of a thin panel to give it a mirror finish.

Machine measuring thickness: the process of working stone to a given thickness.

Acid washing: The process of etching the surface of a stone with acid.

Aged: The process of treating the surface of a stone to make it look like an old surface.

Ball mill: the process of grinding stone in a drum cylinder to obtain a smooth surface.

Vibration: The process of vibrating a stone to produce a smooth surface.

Sandblasting: the process of striking a stone surface with grains of sand at high speed.

Water jet: the process of exposing a stone surface to high pressure water.

bushworking: the process of working the surface of stone with a hammer or similar tool.

Fire Flame: The process of exposing a stone surface to a short-term high-temperature flame, resulting in a rough, textured surface as a result of flaking.

Tweaking: The process of forming a random surface on the surface of a stone by rough working.

natural crevice: the process of creating an uneven surface by chipping through layers, layers, or cracks in stone.

Working with a diamond saw Diamond saw: the process of cutting stone with tools with diamond heads.

Wire saw: stone processing process with a diamond-coated wire saw.

Shot blast saw: stone blasting process with combined steel band and cold steel abrasive.

Permeable Repair: The use of sol, carpentry wax and some polymers to fill in small areas of stone imperfections such as pores, sand holes, etc.

Adaptive repair: refers to repairing the butt joints of broken boards, typically using stud and epoxy.

Usage ratio: the ratio of the amount of finished stone products to the raw materials used.

Restoration of grain: through connection of natural stone patterns.

Tile laying: pre-paving the ground to achieve the effect of embossing patterns or to match the overall tone of the decorative pattern.

Arris: the line of intersection of the decorative surface and the side of the stone product.

Edge chamfering: The process of grinding an edge in the form of a chamfer.

One-piece polishing: the installation or repair process in construction machinery with stone finishing. After the installation is completed, the general surface treatment of the stone floor can effectively reduce the technical requirements for laying the stone floor, and eliminate the sequence of high and low. Poor, keep the stone bright and smooth and so Further.

Recrystallized hardening processing recrystallized process: under the action of machines, some chemical special materials are combined with the structure and organization of the surface of the stone and microrheollogical reactions through the heat generated by friction, thereby creating a new texture Harder and brighter mixed crystal layer to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the stone.

Installation period

Dry Hanging: A method of suspended construction that uses metal hangers to hang stones firmly from a structure to form a finish.

Wet Paste: A laying method that uses cement or resin-based adhesives to directly bond stones to a structure to form a finish.